Hebron is located 30 Km to the south of Jerusalem, and lies 950 m above sea level. The importance of Hebron and its survival in spite of successive political changes can be traced to the profit Abraham (Ibrahim) the forefather of all prophets. Abraham lived in the city , in its beautiful mountains and influenced its development. The city was named after him in the beginning of the Islamic rule of the city. It is still known "Alkhalil" in Arabic means the friend of God (Abraham).
Hebron was chosen by prophet Abraham as a burial place for his wife Sarah, and alter for him self, his son Isaac, his grandson Jacob and their wives.
At the end of the first
century B.C their tombs were surrounded by a towering wall which has resisted the effects of time, wars and destruction and stands till this day.
Sites and Attractions
1) Abraham Mosque: The Cave of Patriarchs
Abraham Mosque History, the Ibrahimi Mosque: This holy site is considered to be the resting place of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their wives. The mosque is an impressive structure, encircled by high walls, some parts of which can be traced back to 37 BC.
2) The Russian Orthodox Church:
This is the only remaining Russian site in Hebron and was built in the early 20 th century in the shape of a crucifix. The church is contained in a garden in the western part of the city.
3) Bir Haram Ar-Rameh (Ramet Al-khalil:
Located on the northern edge of Hebron city, three kilometres north of the old city of Hebron, this site is located on a mountain 915 m above sea level. Even though the environment of the site is spoiled by the urban expansion of the city, the ruins of the excavated church which constitute the site remain untouched, although the site’s boundaries are somewhat vague. The site was first mentioned by Josephus Flavius. He wrote about the legend of an oak named Ogyges, not far from the city of Hebron, near where Ibrahim (Abraham) lived. Hyrcanus conquered the place in 128 BC. King Herod built a huge construction with a massive wall as a place to live for the Edomites. A marble statue of Dionysus and an altar bearing the name of the Edomite god Qos were found. Massive stone altars were used for the building.
In AD 130, Hadrian destroyed the site but rebuilt the wall using the same stone. He also built a temple, which was transformed into a Christian basilica during the period of the emperor Constantine in the fourth century AD. This basilica was so important that it was depicted on the sixth century Madaba map. The basilica of Constantine is the first of its kind in Palestine. The church was probably destroyed during the Persian invasion in AD 614, but it was rebuilt.
4) The Old city of Hebron:
The old city of Hebron is characterized by narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, and old Bazaars (Souk) enjoy the shopping in the lovely old city markets. It is famous for its diversified markets and shops.
5) Hebron Refugee Camps
There are two refugee camps in Hebron, Al Aroub Refugee Camp and Fawwar Refugee camp named after the location of the refugee camps. Both of Them are located in the city side of Hebron and not in the center which is a difference than most of refugee camps in Palestine.
Al-Aroub Refugee Camp was established in 1949, 15km south of Bethlehem. It is located on only 0.24 square kilometres. The original inhabitants came from 33 villages inside 1948 boarders (Israel now). The population is 10.400 inhabitant. The camp is located on the main Hebron-Jerusalem road and Israeli military incursions occur sporadically.
Fawwar was established in 1949 on 0.27 square kilometres of land, 10km south of Hebron after the Palestinian Nakba in 1948 which was a result of the Israeli occupation to Palestine. The camp population in 2007 were 6,544 inhabitants in this small area.System.String